Wednesday, 27 July 2011


1. Solution is formed when a solute is dissolved in a solvent.

2. Solvent is a substances which dissolves a solute.

3. A solute is a substances which dissolved in a solvent.

4. There are 3 types of solution :
- dilute solution
-concentrated solution
- saturated solution

5. Dilute solution contains small amount of solute.

6. Concentrated solution contains a lot of solute.

7. Saturated solution contains maximum amount of solute.

8. There are 2 ways to dissolve the remaining solute in a saturated solution :
- heat the solution
- add more solvent

9. Solubility the maximum amount of solute which can be dissolved in a certain volume of solvent at specific temperature.

10. Factors that affect the solubility :
- nature of solute
- nature of solvent
- temperature

11. Factors that affect the rate of solubility :
- temperature of solvent
- size of solute
- volume of solvent
- stirring effect

12. When the temperature of the solvent is higher, the rate of solubility is higher.

13. When the size of solute is smaller, the rate of solubility is higher.

14. When the volume of solvent is larger, the rate of solubility is higher.

15. If there is a stirring effect, the rate of solubility is higher.

16. Water is known as UNIVERSAL SOLVENT as it can dissolve almost all the substances in the world.

Saturday, 2 July 2011

Comparison Between Evaporation and Boiling

Similarities :
1.Both processes involved the changes from liquid into gases.
2. Both processes absorbed heat.


1. Evaporation occurs at any temperature while boiling occurs at boiling point.
2. Evaporation occurs on the surface of a liquid while boiling occurs in the whole liquid.
3. Evaporation is a slow process while boiling is a fast process.

Saturday, 25 June 2011


Application of water evaporation in daily life :
i) drying clothes
ii) drying seas products such as dry fishes
iii) drying agriculture products such as coconuts, cocoa
iv) producing evaporated milk

Friday, 17 June 2011


1. Evaporation of water is a process at which water change into water vapour at any temperature below its boiling point.

2. Factors that affect the rate of evaporation :
- humidity
- surrounding temperature
- exposed surface area
- movement of air

3. Humidity lower, rate of evaporation higher

4. Surrounding temperature higher, rate of evaporation higher

5. Exposed surface area larger, rate of evaporation higher

6. Movement of air exist, rate of evaporation higher.

Thursday, 26 May 2011

Composition of Water

How to determine the electrode (anode and cathode) ???

- Look at the battery terminal
- Electrode which is connected to the negative terminal is CATHODE
- Automatically you know ANODE is the electrode connected to the positive terminal of battery.

How to identify the gases collected at the electrode???

- CATHODE : you can find the letter H in the spelling, so remember H for HYDROGEN. ;)
p/s : [ no H in anode]

- So at ANODE, oxygen is collected.

How to test the gas???

- At cathode - HYDROGEN - using burning splinter (kayu uji bernyala). Api akan terpadam dan menghasilkan bunyi "pop".

- At anode - OXYGEN - using glowing splinter (kayu uji berbara). Api akan menyala.

If the volume of hydrogen gas collected is 30cm³ , what is the volume of oxygen collected???

- The ratio of H:O is 2:1 ;- so 15cm³ of oxygen is collected.

How to test the presence of water??

Boiling point and freezing/ melting point is one of the test to determine the presence of water.

Other than that, we can use ;

1. anhydrous cobalt chloride paper - change from BLUE to PINK

2. anhydrous copper sulphate - change from WHITE to BLUE

Boiling Point of Water

Boiling point of water is the temperature at which water boils to form steam.

The boiling point of pure water is 100 ̊C.

Impurities will cause the boiling point of water to increase.

Give one example of impurities????

As we go to higher places such as on the mountain, what happen to the boiling point??? Is it decreases or increases???